Giving Thanks for the Blessings of Blogging

The smell of roasted turkey, burning leaves and freshly baked pumpkin pie. Football and parades on television. And the holiday shopping season about to gear up into full swing. It’s the time of the season to make sure our blogs are up to speed.

Best Practice image

Well, okay, maybe best practice policies aren’t the first thing to come to mind when we think of Thanksgiving, but with the new year approaching it’s as good a time as any. We all want the jolly old fat man to bring us lots of new views of our content that may lead to conversions after all, right? So let’s dig right in and fill our dishes to the brim with methods that are sure to satisfy the hungriest of appetites for optimized blog posts.

Hands shaking in success.

A list of blogging best practices could fill a book (a project your friends at Grannelle are even now hard at work writing). Some really important ones might include servings of the following customs and traditions.

Adding imagesPhotoPin offers an exhaustive library of Creative Commons images that are free to add to blog posts. We humans are visual creatures, dependent on sight more than any other sense. And studies show how visual content leads to greater engagement in almost all forms of social media marketing, especially in blogs. But don’t over-saturate your posts with pictures – one Pinterest in the world is enough. Two or three well-crafted photos carefully positioned within the body of the text can be just the thing to change ho-hum to how about that!

Lists and Headings – Think of your blog post as a feast; the easiest way for the reader to consume everything on the platter is one bite at a time. Breaking up the content in segments allows for scanning. Bulleted lists, bolded headings and other demarcations make it easier for the eye to scan the page for important sections, and jump to those that seem most interesting and relevant to each reader. Formatting the post in HTML can really help in this respect. Using an HTML editor makes this all but effortless, and can add other functions such as an eMail link to make it easier for prospective clients and other interested individuals to get in touch.

Share Buttons – Making the process easy to share your content across several social media channels is a great tactic for bloggers, since the more sites on which it can be found, the more it can be engaged. WordPress offers a myriad selection of share buttons that will allow linking your content to some of the most popular social networking sites on the Web. The less effort the reader has to make in spreading the word about what you’ve written is another step toward viral distribution. Sharing is caring, and your audience wants to be generous – it puts them squarely on the list of good boys and girls at a time when it’s crucial to rack up those last few brownie points. Share buttons help them to do so.

Our holiday feast has come to an end, and we hope you’ve cleaned your plate. Join us each week for fresh insights into the wide and wonderful world of eMarketing, social media and Web 2.0 for business and professional use. Are there other best practices you think should be included? If so, please share them in the comments section below.

Happy Thanksgiving image

And finally, all of us here at Grannelle would like to wish you and yours a very happy, and safe, Thanksgiving holiday!

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The Joys and Jeopardies of Social Marketing

Social marketing

”You’ll be damned if you do, and damned if you don’t.”

Lorenzo Dow’s admonishment to other early 19th century clergy is just as apt today when a business considers whether to market their brand in social media. Like almost every other choice we make in life, there are risks and rewards irrespective of how we decide. Social marketing is a two-edged sword, and the benefits should be carefully weighed against the consequences prior to the commitment of resources required to wage a successful campaign. So how do we get the goodies and pass up the pitfalls?

Goal Setting – The very first step in any effective plan leading to successful outcomes is to establish realistically achievable goals. Social marketing is no different in this respect; it is imperative that we know exactly what it is we wish to accomplish. Do you want to establish sales leads in an effort to increase conversions? Are you trying to communicate to your targeted audience the benefits of a new product or service? Knowing which direction to go before setting out on the journey provides purpose, and paves the way to outlining a game plan that has hope of triumph in the long term.

Benefits: Having a concrete plan laid out from the beginning ensures all stakeholders of what can be expected and when. This will be helpful in budgeting allowance and lend accuracy to anticipated ROI.

Risks: The greatest risk here is in avoidance; not setting achievable goals from the outset will only lead to problems over the course of the crusade.

Metric Miscellany – How do you intend to measure your progress? Choosing the appropriate metrics is necessary to aid in keeping track of growth of the social marketing endeavors. Each will provide data that will be crucial in regulating the course of the campaign and assist in maintaining an open-ended assessment of advancement. Close attention to the selected metrics will be necessary throughout the operation, with adjustments made accordingly. Metrics to be used will be based on the needs of the goals set forth in the initial planning stages.

Benefits: Insight into the progress of the canvass supports the marketing approach and provides necessary feedback that keeps team members abreast of current evolvement.

Risks: Failure to opt for suitable metrics may lead to confusion and disappoint tactical evaluations. This can lead to a breakdown and malfunction of the social marketing strategy altogether.

Channel Choice – Which social media channel will best serve the campaign? Much will depend on the outlet which optimally lends itself to your metric needs, but more importantly consideration should also be given as to where your targeted audience spends most of its time. B2C companies may find clients on Facebook, Pinterest and/or Instagram, while B2B firms may lean toward the likes of LinkedIn and Twitter. While no stone should be left unturned, which is to say additional channels may need to be also pondered, the focus of campaign labors should reside within one or two social networking sites and concentrated accordingly.

Benefits: Making the most advantageous selection of social media outlets may mean all the difference between success and failure. As in all steps, careful thought should be given to what commitments resources are to be made and where.

Risks: Making the wrong selection of channels can undo all the hard work done to this point. Adequate research should be expended to guarantee the right choice is made.

Other Concerns – Further issues to factor in will include:

  • Buy-in from all relevant stakeholders, especially at the executive level
  • Making sure sufficient resources in terms of budget and personnel are in place will need to be regarded

Obviously not everything that will be required to carry out a fruitful and efficacious social marketing campaign are listed here, but this list will assist in getting started. Social media offers a wealth of opportunities for marketing, but carries with it hazards as well. Using these and other references can help with the likelihood of desirable outcomes.

Cute photo of puppy

The Grannelle Pup of Approval

Be sure to return to Grannelle every week for the latest in scholastically based eMarketing understandings and insights, and follow Grannelle on Twitter for updated news and views daily.

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The Right Choice (in Blogging Apps)

In today’s world, we love having choices. We also love our mobile apps, almost as much as the devices upon which we use them. Apps are important, after all. Perhaps even more important than sex.

Question marks

“Now wait a moment!” you exclaim out loud (making those sitting and standing close by eye you suspiciously as they slowly inch away). Apps more important than sex?!? You bet. When was the last time you got through the day without accessing one or two of your favorite apps?

There are apps for everything, including (oddly enough) apps for blogging. Cue the WordPress mobile app, which comes in two flavors; WordPress for iOS and WordPress for Android. These aren’t the only two choices in blogging apps, however. Far be it from modern technology to limit the busy folks in the new millennium their selections, and certainly not to only one blogging platform. Blogger and Tumblr each offer their own, and Writer provides content creators with a word processing type of interface, albeit one that is not as fully featured as, say, MS Word.

But before we get ahead of ourselves, let’s take a quick look at the differences between operating systems, because not everyone uses the same kinds of phones either, right?

iOS v Android

Android vs iOS

Both Android and iOS are operating systems, much the same as those in your computer. If you happen to use a PC, you’re probably running Microsoft Windows (unless you’re among the hardcore set that prefers Linux or something equally obscure), and if you’re a Mac user, then some version of OS X.

Android is supported by the great minds of Google, while iOS is proprietary to Apple, developed for their very popular line of iPhones. Microsoft offers a version of Windows 10 for theirs and others phones, but at present runs a distant third in the race.

An entire book could be filled with information and data about Android and iOS, and just as in the desktop computing community (the old-schoolers as it were, myself included), each has its proponents and arguments as to which is better and why. Pick your favorite search engine to learn more. Yet another alternative.


And now, back to the apps

What can I tell you that you don’t already know about apps? The bulk of computing use today is mobile, having surpassed desktop digital processing over a year ago. Access to and use of our smartphones has become grist for the stand-up comedy mill anymore. The amount of tine people spend on their mobile devices has started to level off according to eMarketer, though in the US that currently amounts to about 12.5% of our day. That may not sound like much on the face of it, but when we consider that we typically spend two thirds of the day sleeping and working, and adding in time for meals, personal care, etc., that particular slice of the daily time pie becomes quite significant.

But for the blogger, this may not be all doom and gloom. Being able to read, research and write (the 3 R’s of content generation) from a mobile device can be a real benefit. The mobile revolution has set us free, and now even those of us who slave over a keyboard as either profession or avocation can also enjoy the freedom to be anywhere, anytime, and still meet the deadline on deliverables.

As a final word, if you happen to be reading this particular post on your laptop, pad device or smartphone, I’d like to ask you to take a moment before surfing off to review the latest hot YouTube video or dish another Facebook update, and kindly leave a comment letting me know your thoughts, whether good, bad or indifferent.

Or you could communicate it to others. Simply choose one of the share buttons below…

All trademarks are the intellectual property of the respective registered copyright owners. No association or affiliation is claimed or implied.

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State of Excitement: The Social Media Industry

Social Media

I’ve been doing this blogging thing for a while – 7 years now, in fact. It started in the same year I went back to school. In that time I’ve earned a certificate in eCommerce (Pellissippi State Community College), a BS in Marketing Management (Western Governors University, TN) and am now working toward my MS in Social Media Marketing (Southern New Hampshire University). And in all of that time I’ve independently studied, and written about, social media. My current class is MKT-555, Social Media. So that when this week’s assignment, to write a blog about a social media application, came up, I thought, well gosh!

But wait a moment; what exactly am I going to write about? The instructions read simply:

Discuss the current state of social media within your industry. What tools does your industry use or should use to improve their standings in the social media environment?

(The tough thing about grad school is that students aren’t spoon-fed an education; they’re required to critically reason and figure out much of what they need to know on their own. The time of hand-holding got left back in the days of being an undergrad.)

So what is the state of social media within the social media industry?

Content marketing

Content Marketing – Perhaps one of the biggest movements currently is content marketing. Today’s concerns about advertising and ad blocking have steered many social media marketing efforts toward the generation of content. But generated content applied in the context of marketing takes on different forms, most notably how marketing content varies. Joe Pulizzi of the Content Marketing Institute has spoken often and adamantly about the difference between content marketing and native advertising. Blogging is perhaps one of the best known examples of how marketing content is distributed, often in either form.

The point here, however is the paradigm shift from broadcast messaging to a more conversational approach with consumers. Today’s marketplace is much savvier. Buyers do online research about the products and services they are interested in purchasing on their own, and prefer to ignore traditional advertising. They trust other buyers much more than they trust corporations, and look to social media channels such as Facebook and Pinterest to gather data, making more informed decisions as a result.

The result is that many marketers consider content marketing to be a mainstream strategy, one which is expected to serve for some time


eCommerce – In the new millennium consumers continue to wait for two things: the killer app and flying cars. The killer app is an odds-on fave to arrive first. In the meantime the appearance of buy buttons have ushered in a new phase of eCommerce, more appropriately termed social commerce.

Buy buttons are accessed inside an app within a social media platform. The app allows entrance of the customer’s credit card information, thus completing the purchase cycle directly, without need to interface with the vendor’s Website.

Social buttons serve the dual purpose of providing KPI’s while also offering a historic data stream; their utilization constructs the added dimension of augmented connectivity to online engagement in social networking sites (SNS). Consumer partiality to access the digital domain via their hand held devices combined with a fondness for visual content creates an opportunity for commerce via SNS which is cost-effective and readily accessible.

Social commerce has the potential to readily enhance profitability for businesses while reducing transactional costs at the same time. Pinterest is currently the leader in use of buy buttons.

There are many other examples of social media applications, but to discuss even several more is beyond the scope of this post. So, for the eager reader wishing to explore some further examples, I offer this list of Web 2.0 application tutorials.

I certainly hope you’ve gained something of value from this article. Be sure to share it using the buttons below, and come back every week to Grannelle to stay up to date on commentary about current issues in social media and eBusiness.

All trademarks are the intellectual property of the respective registered copyright owners. No association or affiliation is claimed or implied.

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Marketing Communications Design for Varying Mediums

4 Ps of marketing cartoon

A firm grasp of varying communication methodologies and the mediums within which they are transmitted may offer appreciably considerable advantages toward the enhancement of efficiency and success of the IMC mix. The shift in the communications paradigm brought about by the modernized online business standard has enabled these advantages via increased acceptance and widespread use of various Web 2.0 technologies, e.g. social media, blogs, webinars, etc. Central to each of these is the interactive component, which is to say the ability for two-way conversation to take place, a template which allows for the transformation of buyers into brand and/or product advocates (Smith & Zook, 2011). Thus, it is reasonable to conclude that optimized choice of communication types and mediums can be strategically significant to the impact such selections offer a business. This paper will attempt to evaluate and measure diverging kinds of communication and mediums employed in the delivery of such in an effort to simplify targeted audience engagement.

There are three formats of information distribution readily identified in communication types and mediums; mass media, the World Wide Web, and personal contact. Each of these offers changeable complexity levels, wherein mass media is a one-to-many reach, personal contact a one-to-one reach, and the Web a many-to-many reach (Schneider, 2011). In the one-to-many exemplar, the conversation is limited to a one-way approach, and no opportunity is allowed for interactivity, whereas the one-to-one (personal contact) and many-to-many (Web) approaches facilitate interactive conversation. While personal contact is the obvious augmented choice, it is not feasible across the span of the available marketplace populace, making the Web the most appropriate venue available for the dissemination of information in different communication types and mediums (Moutinho & Chen, 2008).

With these factors in mind, an examination of dissimilar communication types and mediums will follow.

Different Communication Types

Different communication types include, among many others, advertising, branding, direct marketing, packaging, and promotion. These are distinguished in the succeeding manner:

  • Advertising – The word is taken from the Latin, ad vertere, which loosely translates as, “to turn toward.” Advertising attempts to encourage and convince the targeted audience to carry out a motivated action, and turn toward the advertised brand and/or product in a favorable manner, presumably with the end-result being a purchase.
  • Branding – The term “brand” is a noun, and refers to those uniquely individual characteristics such as the name, term, design, etc. The term “branding” is a verb, and describes those activities, e.g. product benefits, customer service, value proposition, and other effects which serve to create a positive impression of the brand within the mind of the consumer.
  • Direct marketing – Direct marketing disregards specific channels and instead attempts to communicate with the customer in an unequivocal and absolute manner. This is achieved through:
    • Text messaging
    • Online display ads
    • Outdoor advertising
    • Print advertising
    • Database marketing
    • Etc.
  • Packaging – Graphic design is used as a marketing communications technique in packaging, employing colors, textual and pictorial information, as well as the brand to serve as inducements for the customer to purchase the product. Packaging represents the final link in the marketing communications chain.
  • Promotion – Along with price, product, and place, promotion is one of the classic four P’s of marketing, and signifies efforts to increase the knowledge and understanding of the product or brand within the consciousness of the consumer. Additionally, it is among those items within the promotional mix, which also include personal selling, advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing and publicity. The intentions of promotion include:
    • Information exposition to the marketplace
    • Amplification in product demand
    • Product delineation

(Wikipedia, 2015)

Different Communications Mediums

Different communication mediums include those channels and methodologies used to distribute and propagate the marketing message, including face-to-face communication, two-way remote communication, written communication, one-way audio and video communication, and social media communication. These are described thusly:

  • Face-to-face communication – Face-to-face communication involves that category of personal communication which takes place amongst parties in the same geo-physical location, and includes all forms of verbal and non-verbal information dissemination. It is highly effective secondary to its immediacy in both transmission and feedback, allowing for instantaneous adjustment in messaging as necessary. Examples include meetings and live presentations.
  • Two-way remote communication – Two way remote communications occurs when both sender and recipient occupy different locations, but are able to correspond in real-time. Although effective, it is limited due to restriction of non-verbal cues. Examples include phone calls, text messages, and teleconferences.
  • Written communication – Written communication takes place whenever the delivered data is inscribed or printed, whether proper or casual. The distinction lies within the lack of immediacy, thus delaying feedback. As well, written information may not completely convey the message as thoroughly as those methods which employ a verbal component. Examples include letters, reports, eMail, blogs and tweets.
  • One-way audio and video communication – One-way audio and video communication, typically referred to as broadcast, is data which has been pre-recorded and accessed by the receiver in a time-shifted fashion, i.e. during a period of their choosing. The overriding issue for concern encountered is that feedback is often limited to posted comments or returned calls. Examples include voicemail, podcasts and audio/video presentations (both online and generated over television and radio).
  • Social media communication – Social media communication has become almost ubiquitous in its use within online business. Blending the features of virtually all other aforementioned communication mediums, social media is influentially commanding and authoritative, allowing audio/video presentations, immediate feedback, and a written record of the proceedings. Management of the venue allows for team collaboration of postings and responses. Drawbacks may be encountered if appropriate reply is delayed or non-existent, and considerable budgeted resource should be committed to ensure optimized service levels and best practices. Examples include Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and SlideShare.

(Project Management Skills, 2015)


It is important to remember that the communication type and medium selected are just as important as the integrated marketing message being transmitted. Attention must always be given to the rationale and function of the communication, the intended audience of the message, and the nature of the data being transmitted. Thoughtful consideration of these factors go far toward the insurance of a successful choice of communication types and mediums.

Works Cited

Moutinho, L., & Chen, C. S. (2008). Problems in Marketing: Applying Key Concepts and Techniques. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Project Management Skills. (2015). Types of Communication Medium for Project Managers. Retrieved March 14, 2015, from Project Management Skills:

Schneider, G. P. (2011). Electronic Commerce. Boston: Cengage Learning.

Smith, P. R., & Zook, Z. (2011). Marketing Communications : Integrating Offline and Online with Social Media. London: Kogan Page.

Wikipedia. (2015). Marketing communications. Retrieved March 14, 2015, from Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia:

Photo credit:

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Case Study: Coca Cola Integrated Marketing Communications

This case study examines the Coca Cola IMC approach as described in the Cola War blog. Factors considered will include an examination of which components are expended in regards to the integrated approach, the comparative importance of the components, component efficiency, and the overall success of the IMC approach.

Integrated Components Used

The integrated components used by Coca Cola employed a mass media methodology which included television advertising, print media and banner ads. The approach utilized a marketing mix of advertising, direct marketing, as well as Web based interactive and social media marketing and sales promotion.

Coca Cola advertising has historically been among the most prolific in marketing history. The various ad campaigns throughout the company’s one hundred twenty nine year history have often had a major impact on culture and society, including a hit song which received airplay on popular radio stations in 1971. The logo and bottle designs are immediately recognizable throughout the world, and are integral to brand’s image and recognition in the marketplace (Wikipedia, 2015). In the southern U.S. the beverage is so pervasive that all soft drinks, typically referred to variously as soda, pop, or soda pop, are called Coke (McConchie, 2015). Coca Cola has repeatedly been ranked as the number one soft drink in the world as a direct result of their aggressive advertising campaigns, and was even the first soft drink consumed by astronauts in space (Hartlaub, 2015).

Direct marketing efforts by Coca Cola are myriad. The devices operated incorporate vendor company partnerships designed for exclusivity, i.e. restaurants and movie theatres only offer Coke products, eliminating any direct competition. They sponsor sporting events via use of the company, e.g. baseball fields, again offering attendant consumers the brand’s products solely. This allows for one-to-one sales to important clients in especially reserved seating areas. Mobile marketing endeavors send out text messages in an attempt to personalize promotions, and viral marketing exertions rely heavily on word-of-mouth communication from brand loyalists (Wilkin, 2009).

Web based and social media marketing campaigns constitute industry benchmarks. Because the brand is so universally recognized throughout the world, little if any audience building is necessary. Fans number over eighty six million across social media channels engaged by the brand. Differing tactics are provided on individual social networking sites, yet a consistently unified message is upheld. Crowd-sourced content as well as direct engagement are hallmarks of Coca Cola’s social media marketing (Shively, 2014). Web based interactive marketing is focused on design and functionality, relying on banners, video and public relations. New products, online games, and social, cultural and sporting events are the focus of the Coca Cola Website content (Darakeva, 2013). Coca Cola’s commitment to a campaign of audience engagement throughout their online marketing crusades is well recognized.

Sales promotion for Coca Cola is aimed at two strategies, retail and food service. Retail efforts are directed toward company partnerships, direct store delivery and point-of-sale (POS) techniques. Reliance on exclusive company partnerships wherein restaurants only offer Coke products eliminates competition. Direct store delivery is a crucial link in the value chain, and offers mobile advertising with bright red delivery trucks emblazoned with the brand logo. POS displays include brand specific coolers for in-store sales along with vending machines which carry Coke products. Food service activities emphasize Coke products in food pairings, menu optimization, and specialty beverages. Meals comprised of convenience foods such as hamburgers, hot dogs, French fries, etc., are often supplemented by the suggestion of Coke products for accompaniment. Such foods may be combined with Coca Cola brand drinks for menu optimization, which may include specialty beverages such as Diet Coke, Cherry Coke, and others (CokeSolutions, 2014).

Comparative Importance of the Components

A comparison of the relative importance of the Coca Cola IMC components reveals a marketing communications mix which is iconic. So much of the brand image is immediately recognizable, right down to the bright red and white lettering of the names Coke and Coca Cola. This imagery is carried out globally, and is so established and acclaimed world-wide that even in languages that may not be familiar in local markets are readily known by consumers (Wikipedia, 2015). Multi-lingual ad use was in fact the case during the recent airing of the NFL Super Bowl Championship, in which the use of English, Spanish, Tagalog, Hebrew, Hindi, Keres, and Senegalese-French languages were incorporated along with the song America the Beautiful (Indian Country Today Media Network, 2015).

The Coca Cola IMC messaging has established a longing for the product that supersedes the desire for that typically associated with a drink to quench one’s thirst (Dudovskiy, 2015). The rank and positioning of the elements used as part of the integrated marketing approach cannot therefore be overstated. The resultant international presence of Coca Cola is a direct outgrowth of the marriage of the advertising, direct marketing, as well as Web based interactive and social media marketing and sales promotion efforts that have been included over the years in their IMC endeavors. Coca Cola has established itself as a player on the large-scale stage as a direct outcome secondary to the comparative importance of the components of the integrated marketing communications mix.

Component Efficiency

The efficiency of the combined IMC elements has proven to be quite lucrative. Revenue has recently been listed at forty six billion USD, with a profit margin of 15.43% and a book value per share of six dollars and ninety five cents USD (Yahoo! Finance, 2015). Annual sales in excess of forty six billion USD and a ranking of #4 of the World’s Most Valuable Brands place Coca Cola squarely on the global market. The company, which was incorporated on September 5, 1919, now carries over five hundred different beverages which are marketed on six continents (Forbes, 2014).

he competence of the combined components used in the Coca Cola integrated marketing communications exemplifies the excellence that can be achieved by a single brand. The achievement can further be evaluated by examination of media metrics such as advertising equivalency, the sum total audience which has been attained through particular media outlets, statistical figures of journalists hosted, number of articles published etc. In terms of market share benchmarks, Coca Cola is promoting and selling its products in over two hundred countries, and employs almost one hundred forty thousand associates, lending credence to the consideration of the company as a market leader in the majority of these marketplaces. Assessment of unique Website visitors, length of visit, search engine results (both free and paid) numbering in the billions on both Google and Bing and others offer insight to the combined component efficacy (Dudovskiy, 2015).

Overall Success of the IMC Approach

An effective integrated marketing communications approach that is deployed and maintained is an essential modern business requirement (Perner, 2008). In terms of successful outcome, Coca Cola’s IMC approach has set a standard that offers a point of reference of desired triumph that is enviable across the industrial landscape. Record-setting sales and revenues, brand visibility and recognition and positioning on the global market are indicative of the Herculean levels of accomplishment achieved by the company. Coca Cola products are consumed world-wide as a direct result of retail and in-store marketing efforts which are meticulously detailed. In the almost one hundred thirty years of business practice in the soft drink trade, Coke has risen to the top of the industrial food chain.

The elements which are expended in regards to the integrated approach, the comparative importance of the components, component efficiency, and the overall success of the IMC approach have combined to create a sensation that customers have warmly embraced. As long as this integrated marketing communications strategy is utilized there is no doubt that Coca Cola will continue to be a market leader that is universally recognized.

Works Cited

CokeSolutions. (2014). Beverage Sales Strategies for Soft Drink Marketing. Retrieved March 1, 2015, from CokeSolutions:

Darakeva, V. (2013). Internet marketing of the Coca Cola Company. Retrieved February 28, 2015, from Slideshare:

Dudovskiy, J. (2015). Coca-Cola Marketing Communications: A Critical Analysis. Retrieved March 1, 2015, from Research Methodology:

Forbes. (2014). Coca Cola on the Forbes World’s Most Valuable Brands List. Retrieved March 1, 2015, from Forbes:

Hartlaub, P. (2015). Sweet! America’s top 10 brands of soda – Business – US Business – Food Inc. | NBC News. Retrieved March 1, 2015, from NBCNews:

Indian Country Today Media Network. (2015). Coca-Cola’s ‘America the Beautiful’ Super Bowl Ad Causes Stir – Retrieved February 28, 2015, from Indan Country Today Media Network:

McConchie, A. (2015). The Pop vs. Soda Page. Retrieved February 28, 2015, from Pop vs. Soda:

Perner, L. (2008). Promotion: Integrated Marketing Communication. Retrieved March 1, 2015, from ConsumerPsychologist:

Shively, K. (2014). Lessons from Coca-Cola’s Social Media Strategy: Cohesive Campaigns and Creative Content | Simply Measured. Retrieved March 1, 2015, from Simply Measured:

Wikipedia. (2015). Coca Cola – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved February 28, 2015, from Wikipedia – The Free Encyclopedia:

Wilkin, R. N. (2009). Coca Cola’s Original Coke: Marketing Communication Mix. Retrieved February 28, 2015, from Blogspot:

Yahoo! Finance. (2015). KO Key Statistics | Coca Cola Company (The) Common Stock | Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved March 1, 2015, from Yahoo! Finance:

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