Marketing Communications Design for Varying Mediums

4 Ps of marketing cartoon

A firm grasp of varying communication methodologies and the mediums within which they are transmitted may offer appreciably considerable advantages toward the enhancement of efficiency and success of the IMC mix. The shift in the communications paradigm brought about by the modernized online business standard has enabled these advantages via increased acceptance and widespread use of various Web 2.0 technologies, e.g. social media, blogs, webinars, etc. Central to each of these is the interactive component, which is to say the ability for two-way conversation to take place, a template which allows for the transformation of buyers into brand and/or product advocates (Smith & Zook, 2011). Thus, it is reasonable to conclude that optimized choice of communication types and mediums can be strategically significant to the impact such selections offer a business. This paper will attempt to evaluate and measure diverging kinds of communication and mediums employed in the delivery of such in an effort to simplify targeted audience engagement.

There are three formats of information distribution readily identified in communication types and mediums; mass media, the World Wide Web, and personal contact. Each of these offers changeable complexity levels, wherein mass media is a one-to-many reach, personal contact a one-to-one reach, and the Web a many-to-many reach (Schneider, 2011). In the one-to-many exemplar, the conversation is limited to a one-way approach, and no opportunity is allowed for interactivity, whereas the one-to-one (personal contact) and many-to-many (Web) approaches facilitate interactive conversation. While personal contact is the obvious augmented choice, it is not feasible across the span of the available marketplace populace, making the Web the most appropriate venue available for the dissemination of information in different communication types and mediums (Moutinho & Chen, 2008).

With these factors in mind, an examination of dissimilar communication types and mediums will follow.

Different Communication Types

Different communication types include, among many others, advertising, branding, direct marketing, packaging, and promotion. These are distinguished in the succeeding manner:

  • Advertising – The word is taken from the Latin, ad vertere, which loosely translates as, “to turn toward.” Advertising attempts to encourage and convince the targeted audience to carry out a motivated action, and turn toward the advertised brand and/or product in a favorable manner, presumably with the end-result being a purchase.
  • Branding – The term “brand” is a noun, and refers to those uniquely individual characteristics such as the name, term, design, etc. The term “branding” is a verb, and describes those activities, e.g. product benefits, customer service, value proposition, and other effects which serve to create a positive impression of the brand within the mind of the consumer.
  • Direct marketing – Direct marketing disregards specific channels and instead attempts to communicate with the customer in an unequivocal and absolute manner. This is achieved through:
    • Text messaging
    • Online display ads
    • Outdoor advertising
    • Print advertising
    • Database marketing
    • Etc.
  • Packaging – Graphic design is used as a marketing communications technique in packaging, employing colors, textual and pictorial information, as well as the brand to serve as inducements for the customer to purchase the product. Packaging represents the final link in the marketing communications chain.
  • Promotion – Along with price, product, and place, promotion is one of the classic four P’s of marketing, and signifies efforts to increase the knowledge and understanding of the product or brand within the consciousness of the consumer. Additionally, it is among those items within the promotional mix, which also include personal selling, advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing and publicity. The intentions of promotion include:
    • Information exposition to the marketplace
    • Amplification in product demand
    • Product delineation

(Wikipedia, 2015)

Different Communications Mediums

Different communication mediums include those channels and methodologies used to distribute and propagate the marketing message, including face-to-face communication, two-way remote communication, written communication, one-way audio and video communication, and social media communication. These are described thusly:

  • Face-to-face communication – Face-to-face communication involves that category of personal communication which takes place amongst parties in the same geo-physical location, and includes all forms of verbal and non-verbal information dissemination. It is highly effective secondary to its immediacy in both transmission and feedback, allowing for instantaneous adjustment in messaging as necessary. Examples include meetings and live presentations.
  • Two-way remote communication – Two way remote communications occurs when both sender and recipient occupy different locations, but are able to correspond in real-time. Although effective, it is limited due to restriction of non-verbal cues. Examples include phone calls, text messages, and teleconferences.
  • Written communication – Written communication takes place whenever the delivered data is inscribed or printed, whether proper or casual. The distinction lies within the lack of immediacy, thus delaying feedback. As well, written information may not completely convey the message as thoroughly as those methods which employ a verbal component. Examples include letters, reports, eMail, blogs and tweets.
  • One-way audio and video communication – One-way audio and video communication, typically referred to as broadcast, is data which has been pre-recorded and accessed by the receiver in a time-shifted fashion, i.e. during a period of their choosing. The overriding issue for concern encountered is that feedback is often limited to posted comments or returned calls. Examples include voicemail, podcasts and audio/video presentations (both online and generated over television and radio).
  • Social media communication – Social media communication has become almost ubiquitous in its use within online business. Blending the features of virtually all other aforementioned communication mediums, social media is influentially commanding and authoritative, allowing audio/video presentations, immediate feedback, and a written record of the proceedings. Management of the venue allows for team collaboration of postings and responses. Drawbacks may be encountered if appropriate reply is delayed or non-existent, and considerable budgeted resource should be committed to ensure optimized service levels and best practices. Examples include Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and SlideShare.

(Project Management Skills, 2015)


It is important to remember that the communication type and medium selected are just as important as the integrated marketing message being transmitted. Attention must always be given to the rationale and function of the communication, the intended audience of the message, and the nature of the data being transmitted. Thoughtful consideration of these factors go far toward the insurance of a successful choice of communication types and mediums.

Works Cited

Moutinho, L., & Chen, C. S. (2008). Problems in Marketing: Applying Key Concepts and Techniques. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Project Management Skills. (2015). Types of Communication Medium for Project Managers. Retrieved March 14, 2015, from Project Management Skills:

Schneider, G. P. (2011). Electronic Commerce. Boston: Cengage Learning.

Smith, P. R., & Zook, Z. (2011). Marketing Communications : Integrating Offline and Online with Social Media. London: Kogan Page.

Wikipedia. (2015). Marketing communications. Retrieved March 14, 2015, from Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia:

Photo credit:

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Case Study: Coca Cola Integrated Marketing Communications

This case study examines the Coca Cola IMC approach as described in the Cola War blog. Factors considered will include an examination of which components are expended in regards to the integrated approach, the comparative importance of the components, component efficiency, and the overall success of the IMC approach.

Integrated Components Used

The integrated components used by Coca Cola employed a mass media methodology which included television advertising, print media and banner ads. The approach utilized a marketing mix of advertising, direct marketing, as well as Web based interactive and social media marketing and sales promotion.

Coca Cola advertising has historically been among the most prolific in marketing history. The various ad campaigns throughout the company’s one hundred twenty nine year history have often had a major impact on culture and society, including a hit song which received airplay on popular radio stations in 1971. The logo and bottle designs are immediately recognizable throughout the world, and are integral to brand’s image and recognition in the marketplace (Wikipedia, 2015). In the southern U.S. the beverage is so pervasive that all soft drinks, typically referred to variously as soda, pop, or soda pop, are called Coke (McConchie, 2015). Coca Cola has repeatedly been ranked as the number one soft drink in the world as a direct result of their aggressive advertising campaigns, and was even the first soft drink consumed by astronauts in space (Hartlaub, 2015).

Direct marketing efforts by Coca Cola are myriad. The devices operated incorporate vendor company partnerships designed for exclusivity, i.e. restaurants and movie theatres only offer Coke products, eliminating any direct competition. They sponsor sporting events via use of the company, e.g. baseball fields, again offering attendant consumers the brand’s products solely. This allows for one-to-one sales to important clients in especially reserved seating areas. Mobile marketing endeavors send out text messages in an attempt to personalize promotions, and viral marketing exertions rely heavily on word-of-mouth communication from brand loyalists (Wilkin, 2009).

Web based and social media marketing campaigns constitute industry benchmarks. Because the brand is so universally recognized throughout the world, little if any audience building is necessary. Fans number over eighty six million across social media channels engaged by the brand. Differing tactics are provided on individual social networking sites, yet a consistently unified message is upheld. Crowd-sourced content as well as direct engagement are hallmarks of Coca Cola’s social media marketing (Shively, 2014). Web based interactive marketing is focused on design and functionality, relying on banners, video and public relations. New products, online games, and social, cultural and sporting events are the focus of the Coca Cola Website content (Darakeva, 2013). Coca Cola’s commitment to a campaign of audience engagement throughout their online marketing crusades is well recognized.

Sales promotion for Coca Cola is aimed at two strategies, retail and food service. Retail efforts are directed toward company partnerships, direct store delivery and point-of-sale (POS) techniques. Reliance on exclusive company partnerships wherein restaurants only offer Coke products eliminates competition. Direct store delivery is a crucial link in the value chain, and offers mobile advertising with bright red delivery trucks emblazoned with the brand logo. POS displays include brand specific coolers for in-store sales along with vending machines which carry Coke products. Food service activities emphasize Coke products in food pairings, menu optimization, and specialty beverages. Meals comprised of convenience foods such as hamburgers, hot dogs, French fries, etc., are often supplemented by the suggestion of Coke products for accompaniment. Such foods may be combined with Coca Cola brand drinks for menu optimization, which may include specialty beverages such as Diet Coke, Cherry Coke, and others (CokeSolutions, 2014).

Comparative Importance of the Components

A comparison of the relative importance of the Coca Cola IMC components reveals a marketing communications mix which is iconic. So much of the brand image is immediately recognizable, right down to the bright red and white lettering of the names Coke and Coca Cola. This imagery is carried out globally, and is so established and acclaimed world-wide that even in languages that may not be familiar in local markets are readily known by consumers (Wikipedia, 2015). Multi-lingual ad use was in fact the case during the recent airing of the NFL Super Bowl Championship, in which the use of English, Spanish, Tagalog, Hebrew, Hindi, Keres, and Senegalese-French languages were incorporated along with the song America the Beautiful (Indian Country Today Media Network, 2015).

The Coca Cola IMC messaging has established a longing for the product that supersedes the desire for that typically associated with a drink to quench one’s thirst (Dudovskiy, 2015). The rank and positioning of the elements used as part of the integrated marketing approach cannot therefore be overstated. The resultant international presence of Coca Cola is a direct outgrowth of the marriage of the advertising, direct marketing, as well as Web based interactive and social media marketing and sales promotion efforts that have been included over the years in their IMC endeavors. Coca Cola has established itself as a player on the large-scale stage as a direct outcome secondary to the comparative importance of the components of the integrated marketing communications mix.

Component Efficiency

The efficiency of the combined IMC elements has proven to be quite lucrative. Revenue has recently been listed at forty six billion USD, with a profit margin of 15.43% and a book value per share of six dollars and ninety five cents USD (Yahoo! Finance, 2015). Annual sales in excess of forty six billion USD and a ranking of #4 of the World’s Most Valuable Brands place Coca Cola squarely on the global market. The company, which was incorporated on September 5, 1919, now carries over five hundred different beverages which are marketed on six continents (Forbes, 2014).

he competence of the combined components used in the Coca Cola integrated marketing communications exemplifies the excellence that can be achieved by a single brand. The achievement can further be evaluated by examination of media metrics such as advertising equivalency, the sum total audience which has been attained through particular media outlets, statistical figures of journalists hosted, number of articles published etc. In terms of market share benchmarks, Coca Cola is promoting and selling its products in over two hundred countries, and employs almost one hundred forty thousand associates, lending credence to the consideration of the company as a market leader in the majority of these marketplaces. Assessment of unique Website visitors, length of visit, search engine results (both free and paid) numbering in the billions on both Google and Bing and others offer insight to the combined component efficacy (Dudovskiy, 2015).

Overall Success of the IMC Approach

An effective integrated marketing communications approach that is deployed and maintained is an essential modern business requirement (Perner, 2008). In terms of successful outcome, Coca Cola’s IMC approach has set a standard that offers a point of reference of desired triumph that is enviable across the industrial landscape. Record-setting sales and revenues, brand visibility and recognition and positioning on the global market are indicative of the Herculean levels of accomplishment achieved by the company. Coca Cola products are consumed world-wide as a direct result of retail and in-store marketing efforts which are meticulously detailed. In the almost one hundred thirty years of business practice in the soft drink trade, Coke has risen to the top of the industrial food chain.

The elements which are expended in regards to the integrated approach, the comparative importance of the components, component efficiency, and the overall success of the IMC approach have combined to create a sensation that customers have warmly embraced. As long as this integrated marketing communications strategy is utilized there is no doubt that Coca Cola will continue to be a market leader that is universally recognized.

Works Cited

CokeSolutions. (2014). Beverage Sales Strategies for Soft Drink Marketing. Retrieved March 1, 2015, from CokeSolutions:

Darakeva, V. (2013). Internet marketing of the Coca Cola Company. Retrieved February 28, 2015, from Slideshare:

Dudovskiy, J. (2015). Coca-Cola Marketing Communications: A Critical Analysis. Retrieved March 1, 2015, from Research Methodology:

Forbes. (2014). Coca Cola on the Forbes World’s Most Valuable Brands List. Retrieved March 1, 2015, from Forbes:

Hartlaub, P. (2015). Sweet! America’s top 10 brands of soda – Business – US Business – Food Inc. | NBC News. Retrieved March 1, 2015, from NBCNews:

Indian Country Today Media Network. (2015). Coca-Cola’s ‘America the Beautiful’ Super Bowl Ad Causes Stir – Retrieved February 28, 2015, from Indan Country Today Media Network:

McConchie, A. (2015). The Pop vs. Soda Page. Retrieved February 28, 2015, from Pop vs. Soda:

Perner, L. (2008). Promotion: Integrated Marketing Communication. Retrieved March 1, 2015, from ConsumerPsychologist:

Shively, K. (2014). Lessons from Coca-Cola’s Social Media Strategy: Cohesive Campaigns and Creative Content | Simply Measured. Retrieved March 1, 2015, from Simply Measured:

Wikipedia. (2015). Coca Cola – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved February 28, 2015, from Wikipedia – The Free Encyclopedia:

Wilkin, R. N. (2009). Coca Cola’s Original Coke: Marketing Communication Mix. Retrieved February 28, 2015, from Blogspot:

Yahoo! Finance. (2015). KO Key Statistics | Coca Cola Company (The) Common Stock | Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved March 1, 2015, from Yahoo! Finance:

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Online Considerations for Integrated Marketing Communications

      In the consideration of integrated marketing communications (IMC) there are myriad components, including the company’s mission and vision statements, traditional marketing philosophies, advertising, direct and digital marketing, sales and customer support, PR, trade shows, and the overall approach to corporate social responsibility (Wikipedia, 2015). It is best to reflect on the adage which states, “A chain is only as strong as its weakest link,” when giving weight to which is most important, however. All components of IMC should be optimized throughout the implementation process in an effort to facilitate maximized desirable outcomes (Yeshin, 1999).

      Nevertheless, discussion of some of the highlights of IMC is warranted. This post will examine the process of online marketing, since it represents the most recent innovation in IMC.

      A prime consideration of any marketing plan is the focus on and understanding of the consumer, particularly what they may expect and desire when making purchases. Feedback is essential for an understanding of what factors may motivate individual customers during the purchasing process (Yeshin, 1999). Social media offers an unprecedented opportunity for consumers to voice their opinions in a simplified manner. Social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter have become destinations for both companies and buyers in this respect, since each offer easily facilitated conversation. Data mining is another benefit to participants, since so much information is readily available to both parties from within the portals.

      However, there is a downside to social media, that being unless it is used as intended, i.e. an interactive forum, it tends to do more harm than good. Responsibility must be taken by any company embracing use of the technology; this means responding to fan posts, and doing so in a timely manner.

      ‘Interactive’ indicates a two-way communication. As an example, during real world conversation a second party reacts to the initial statements made by the first, typically by making a statement or even asking a question. If the initiator is silent and says nothing, that person may then be perceived as ignoring the comments or questions, and considered acting rudely by doing so.

      The same is true in social media. If there is no company response to comments or questions posted within the forum, fans might feel ignored, and the resultant ill will that may be generated can be most damaging, causing more harm than good. A commitment to social media usage must be total and complete, including funding the resources necessary to provide professional staffing to monitor and respond on a consistent basis. Secondary to budget considerations, this apparently is greatly ignored by much of industry, and becomes problematic (Karr, 2014).

      Websites have additionally become a mainstay of online marketing. Visitors can discover products and services, gain a wide range of intelligence about general and specific information about the company, and make purchases directly from the site without need for traveling to traditional bricks and mortar stores. Companies know immediately how many potential and actual shoppers call upon the site, as well as attaining a wide range of customer demographic data (Schneider, 2011). This is a particular advancement over traditional methods of intelligence gathering, such as customer response surveys, since the understanding acquired is of a greater detail, as well as being more accurate.

      Disadvantages to online business must also be contemplated. Security and copyright issues give rise for concern. Since the Web is ubiquitous, the possibility of intellectual property theft is global. Hackers from around the world may find the business’s online presence to be an inviting target, and if so may reduce or even eliminate access by customers to the virtual storefront.

      Yet of critical concern is the targeted audience. Potential buyers may be flooded with advertisements which may decrease sensitivity to brands and their associated products and services. Optimized SEO is necessary to provide customers an easy way to find an online presence through search engines. While ready-made Websites are abundant, these may not correctly provide an appropriate brand image (O’Farrell, 2015).

      Blogs also offer furtherance in IMC by virtue of their interactivity. Companies can disseminate news about new and planned product offerings, social responsibility efforts, and so forth. Readers can leave comments which allow for the opportunity of conversation between both seller and buyer, giving consumers the opportunity to learn more about the company and the company insight into customer desires. This information may be shared across the social media, thus offering benefit again for all concerned (Schneider, 2011).

      Problems with blogs must also be recognized. They are often seen as substandard and effortless publicity maneuvers, demand relentless upkeep, distribute private information, and must be deemed credible. Content marketing endeavors must be managed routinely and can need resource funding to do so effectively (Corporate Blogging, 2010).

      Information dissemination is the raison d’etre of IMC. Online marketing efforts allow this procedure to be enabled as never before in the history of product and service promotion.

Works Cited

Corporate Blogging. (2010). Corporate Blogging: Advantages and Disadvantages of Business Blogging .
      Retrieved February 21, 2015, from Corporate Blogging:       of.html

Karr, D. (2014). Your Lack of Responsiveness is Destroying Your Social Media Strategy |       Marketing Tech
      Blog. Retrieved February 21, 2015, from Marketing Tech Blog:

Moutinho, L., & Chien, C. S. (2008). Problems in Marketing. Los Angeles: SAGE       Publications Ltd.

O’Farrell, R. (2015). The Disadvantages of Businesses on the Web | Retrieved       February 21,
      2015, from       web-4040.html

Schneider, G. P. (2011). Electronic Commerce. Boston: Cengage Learning.

Wikipedia. (2015). Integrated marketing communications – Wikipedia, the free       encyclopedia. Retrieved
      February 20, 2015, from Wikipedia – The Free Encyclopedia:

Yeshin, T. (1999). Integrated Marketing Communications. Jordan Hill, GBR: Routledge.

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What Social Media Needs Is A Few Good Heretics

For men are prone to go it blind
Along the calf-paths of the mind,

And work away from sun to sun,
To do what other men have done.
– S. Foss
The Calf-Path


Heretic [n. her-i-tik ] – anyone who does not conform to an established attitude, doctrine or principle.


Social media marketing is in desperate need of heretics. Far too many industry professionals follow along familiar trails of sameness. The biggest problem? A majority acceptance of the notion that social media education is unnecessary, or even detrimental.

Oh, goody. Stringer is on a rant about SM education again. What else is on?

Perhaps so, but frankly, I’ve grown both weary and tired to the point of exhaustion of the pundits and their endless, mindless litany of, “there is no need.” There is in fact great need. Consider:
•The range of salaries for social media marketing managers is $25K to $75K, with a median of $45K.
•The majority of those working in this field, 66%, are women, the most classically underserved demographic in terms of earnings.
•There are currently 3 graduate programs in social media available today, and one undergraduate program. All are available online.

Since it’s inception and until recently, social media marketing management has been captained by individuals of divergent backgrounds, none having been academically trained specifically. This has been necessary since until just a couple of years ago, there were no training programs available. This is not to say they haven’t produced high-quality output, nor behaved in anything less than the highest professional standards.

But adspend has trended ever increasingly upward, with high expectations to reach the double-digit billions of dollars within the next few years. This fact generates two important considerations:
1. Business can hardly be expected to invest such astronomical sums without a desire for standardized training in the field.
2. The resultant relative increase that can logically be anticipated in pay grade can scarcely be justified for the same reason.

Many decry the rationale for SMM education with claims that the field is changing too quickly. This statement is oxymoronic – it is because of the rapid changes occurring that makes the need for specifically degreed personnel so critical. Individuals educated with scientific methodology and cutting edge didactics are the best equipped to deal with these changes.

Let’s take another look at the most crucial factor, that of women being the majority of workers. Most of these are working moms, whose families are dependent on their sole support. A median salary of only $45,000 per year does little to alleviate the pressures of personal economic demand, with even less room for niceties such as an occasional nice dinner out, and forget about a vacation. Most already have an undergraduate degree, and all currently available advanced degree programs can be completed in 18 months. Funding is readily available in the form of student loans, which can be paid back in only a few years given the commiserate increase in earnings. All of the programs are delivered via the Web, allowing for attendance whenever there is an hour or so of free time, even if that is at the end of the day, just before bed.

To persist in stating there is no need for a formal SMM education, that the job can be done without it, only stymies the possibility that earnings will ever rise above a minimum. It is snacking on their own young. Everyone works hard, and for long hours, and the idea of putting something else to do on the daily schedule plate will understandably be met with groans and a jaundiced eye. Yet to stubbornly insist on following the calf-paths of those who shout there is no need is ludicrous.

Social media education is an established fact of life. It isn’t going away, and it isn’t a fad. It is the future of the industry. The time is now to either get on board the bus, or get run over by it.

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Bullmoosing The Social Marketplace

In today’s business world, effective social media management has become a cornerstone of successful marketing strategies and campaigns. Much attention is given by enterprise to an established presence on Facebook, Twitter, and many other social networking sites. Web 2.0 applications such as blogging and webinars are widely used to broadcast marketing content. eMail continues to prove itself an efficient operational method of individual targeting.

The benefits of social media to business are both myriad and well documented (Stewart, 2013). In her article, Stewart lists the number one advantage as being customer engagement; the ability to receive input directly from buyers. This sort of readily available marketing research is invaluable data, and is mined with minimal effort. Consumer participation and contributions may offer surgically precise insight into product and service desirability, with resulting increases in sales and customer satisfaction (Buyer Persona Institute, 2013).

Yet companies continue to ignore these leads in favor of outmoded customary methodologies, as has been indicated recently by the Occupy movement (Browne & Nutfall, 2013). This is a dynamic whose precedent can be traced back to the 1950’s, when corporate executives extensively believed they could dictate what the marketplace would buy. It was during that time cartoonist Al Capp, architect of the comic strip Li’l Abner, created a caricature named General Bashington T. Bullmoose, “the epitome of a mercenary, cold-blooded capitalist tyrant tycoon.” (Wikipedia, 2013)

Bullmoose’s admonition that, “What’s good for General Bullmoose is good for the USA,” a reflection of previous General Motors president Charles E. Wilson’s sentiments expressed in congressional testimony, only ever-so-slightly over exaggerates the nature of the problem of a refusal to listen to customer input over social media channels. It was as I was preparing to write this article that my wife, Annelle, astutely considered that the active verb tense describing this condition could be termed, “bullmoosing,” the social marketplace, which is to say ignoring the vital information that might very well spell out the difference between success and failure for many marketing ventures.

Bullmoosing is carried out at the peril of companies. The recent lessons illustrated by angry Middle East protestors demonstrate the danger of a refusal to deliberate the wishes of constituents (Greenfield & Braun, 2013). While it is doubtful consumers will take the streets in violent demonstration, they can and will refuse to support heavily funded marketing campaigns, which in the end can spell disaster for bottom line profits and investment returns.

Recent research suggests billions are being spent in social media advertising dollars, positioning marketing messages in channels such as Facebook and Twitter (Palermo, 2013). Over 88,000 open social media management positions are currently being listed on Websites (SimplyHired, 2013). In light of such heavy speculations, bullmoosing targeted audiences seems to make little, if any, sense.

In today’s business world, effective social media management has become a cornerstone of successful marketing strategies and campaigns. Yet the predilection to continue the bullmoosing of the social marketplace stands as an ongoing threat to the future of marketing efforts for many companies.

Works Cited

Browne, J., & Nutfall, R. (2013, December 4). Beyond corporate social responsibility: Integrated external engagement | McKinsey & Company. Retrieved from McKinsey & Company:
Buyer Persona Institute. (2013, December 4). What is a Buyer Persona? | Buyer Persona Institute. Retrieved from Buyer Persona Institute:
Greenfield, D., & Braun, B. (2013, December 4). Jordan Ignores Domestic Discontent at its Own Peril. Retrieved from Atlantic Council:
Palermo, E. (2013, December 4). Social Media Advertising Budgets Rise in 2013. Retrieved from Business News Daily:
SimplyHired. (2013, December 4). Social Media Manager Jobs | Job Search with SimplyHired. Retrieved from SimplyHired:
Stewart, K. (2013, December 4). Top 5 ways your company can benefit from social media – The Business Journals. Retrieved from The Business Journals:
Wikipedia. (2013, December 4). Li’l Abner – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia:’l_Abner

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